Your Excellenc to just accept our congratulations

TO HIS EXCELLENCY, THE AMBASSADOR OF THE P.R. OF BULGARIA  DEN HAAG.

Excellency,

Respectfully we request Your Excellenc to just accept our congratulations on the celebration of the 1300th anniversary of the Bulgarian State and our good needs for happiness and prosperity for Your Excellency’s individuals on this time and for an extended future.

Pricey Mr. Avramov,

It offers me nice pleasure that I can inform you that the Rotterdam metropolis authorities has determined to donate a piece of a Rotterdam artist to the Sofia museum to be devoted to 1300 years anniversary of the State of Bulgaria.

Town fathers additionally determined to present a duplicate of the well-known statue of the Rotterdamborn thinker Erasmus. The unique statue was made in 1622 by Hendrick de Keyzer. The bronze reproduction was made by a wellknown Rotterdam sculptor, Huib Noorlander.

I hope that each works will discover a place within the Sofia museum.

Yours sincerely,               Ivo P.L. Blom,

Burgomaster’s Secretary.

TO HIS EXCELLENCY LATCHESAR AVRAMOV, AMBASSADOR OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA  THE HAGUE

Pricey Mr. Ambassador, Amsterdam, October 19,1981

On behalf of the Philipp Brothers group I herewith want to congratulate you and all our pals in Bulgaria upon the 1300th Anniversary of the State of Bulgaria.

The wealthy historical past of Bulgaria, one of many oldest states in Europa, and its great achievements in changing into the trendy industrial agrarian state it’s immediately, should fill the Bulgarian individuals with the delight and motivation that can guarantee Bulgaria’s continued cultural, financial and social success on the earth.

The yr 1981 additionally marks the primary anniversary of the Basic Settlement on financial, business and commerce cooperation between the Bulgarian International and Financial Commerce Organizations and Philipp Brothers. Though this Settlement is however one yr outdated, it holds nice promise for additional development of our cooperation based mostly as it’s on an extended standing relationship of mutual belief and respect.

Yours sincerely,               Philipp Brothers (Holland) b.v.

  1. Straus

TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE AMBASSADOR OF THE P.R. OF BULGARIA  ’sGRAVENHAGE.

Excellency,         September 22nd, 1981

I’m happy to tell you that on the event of the celebration of the 1300 years’ anniversary of Bulgaria, we prefer to current to your nation a present within the type of a multilanguage laboratory system.

This method is designed for 15 languagestudents and will be prolonged.

Yours faithfully,

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Not contemplating Bulgaria from a world standpoint

As we’re not contemplating Bulgaria from a world standpoint, quite a lot of these clauses don’t concern us. We are going to solely observe that, no matter could have been stated of the sovereignty or halfsovereignty of Bulgaria, we should not overlook the truth that this query can’t be solved by astudy of the enactments of the Treaty of Berlin.

This treaty, which imposes so many situations on Bulgaria, itself stipulates that instantly after the election of the prince Bulgaria shall take pleasure in full autonomy. It follows, then, that from that second Bulgaria have to be autonomous, and, every day bringing new successes, Bulgaria was capable of actually develop into a sovereign state, and much eclipse the vassal and tributary principality of 1878. With the consent of the events involved, the capitulations have been abolished; the tribute shouldn’t be paid; industrial treaties are freely made between Bulgaria and the Powers ; every day brings a change within the relations of Turkey and Bulgaria. Every little thing is dependent upon ethical or bodily foice. As long as Bulgaria stays sturdy she could contemplate herself sovereign ; if weak, she is barely halfsovereign. As to the clauses of the Treaty of Berlin regarding the authorities of the nation, they solely remained legitimate till the start of the autonomy. They have been binding on Bulgaria earlier than and through the Timova meeting and after it, till the election of the prince.

The constituent meeting met at Timova February ioth 22nd, 1879, and shortly voted the Structure of the nation which, with some slight modifications, remains to be in pressure. This meeting, dissolved instantly after the passing of the Structure, was adopted by one other for the election of the prince, April 29th, 1879. Alexander of Battenberg was unanimously elected.

The modern historical past of Bulgaria

We is not going to dwell upon the modern historical past of Bulgaria, however solely point out just a few of its most essential and salient occasions. These are the union of Jap Roumelia with Northern Bulgaria (September sixth, 1885), the ServoBulgarian struggle of the identical 12 months, which introduced glory to the Bulgarian military, and the election pf His Royal Highness Ferdinand I. as Prince of Bulgaria (July seventh, 1887).

For the reason that election of His Royal Highness, Bulgaria has loved absolute peace. Due to this circumstance, and to the watchfulness of the pinnacle of the State, this very long time of peace has been effectively employed within the interior and outer consolidation of the nation, within the ethical and mental improvement of the folks, in all of the enterprises which at this time place Bulgaria within the rank of civilised and wellordered international locations. Lastly, allow us to point out one other occasion of the best significance for the way forward for the Principality: the muse of a dynasty by the wedding of His Royal Highness and the start of Boris, Prince of Timova, the primary inheritor to the throne of Bulgaria.

 

The Secretaries of Legation

Mr. Walter Baring, one of many Secretaries of Legation, who was appointed to that obligation, reached Philippopolis at about the identical time as myself, and though our strains of investigation had been in the primary unbiased, we arrived at considerably the identical end result as to details. Mr. J. A. MacGahan, then correspondent of the London “ Each day Information,” was going to the Serbian frontier to jot down concerning the Serbian struggle with Turkey. He occurred to go on the identical railway practice with me so far as Philippopolis, and, remaining there a day, grew to become so fascinated by what he heard that he determined to place off his journey for some time and write of what he noticed. It’s mainly via his letters that the English and the American public grew to become conscious of the way during which the Turks had suppressed the issues. As there was each cause for conducting my inquiries overtly, Mr. MacGahan, Mr. Carl Schneider, the correspondent of the “ Cologne Gazette,” and, certainly, all who selected had been allowed to be current.

Two interpreters, of various nationalities, every talking a number of languages, secured us in opposition to doable deceit. My preliminary report was given out for publication from the Legation throughout my absence and with out my information.

The story of what had already taken place

It’s pointless to recite now the story of what had already taken place or to inform of the horrors which nonetheless remained seen. Suffice it to say that the reality of the statements made by the American clergymen was abundantly confirmed. The state of the nation, nevertheless, was then so unsettled there was such abject concern on the a part of the Christian inhabitants and such organized terrorism on the a part of the Mussulmans, with so nice carelessness and inefficiency on the a part of the officers that it was unimaginable to withstand the will to do what we might to result in a greater state of issues.

The prisons had been full of individuals accused of political offenses, who had been being tried in batches earlier than a fee composed of Mussulmans with out regard to the peculiar types of process ; sentences of essentially the most extreme nature got day by day, and frequent executions had been happening. The Christian inhabitants had been afraid to seem exterior of their villages or to proceed their agricultural labors ; their cattle and horses had been stolen by their Mussulman neighbors, and their crops weren’t sometimes destroyed. What we might do in the best way of illustration to the native authorities or to the pashas was achieved, and in practically all instances this produced an impact.

Financial system og Bulgaria

DURING THE 5 centuries of Turkish domination of Bulgaria, from 1396 to 1878, the early agrarian financial system was retained underneath the final options of medieval serfdom. Towards the second half of the 18th century, the big land-holdings of Turkish landlords had been leased on the izpolitza or kisim techniques. The izpolitza was a share-cropping system by which half the farmer’s yield was paid to the landowner as lease. The kisim system fastened the lease prematurely between farmer and titled landholder, no matter yield.

The development towards urbanization and industrialization started towards the top of the 18th century. There was a substantial development within the city inhabitants and the quantity of people that earned a dwelling by different means than farming. Thus, the primitive agrarian financial system underwent a modification to fulfill the calls for of a rising city market. Agriculture modified over right into a commodity-monetary financial system with a particular market orientation. The land reform of 1834 dealt the big landholders a crushing blow, for it opened the best way for a fantastic improve in medium and small-farm ownex-ship. Steadily, the angaria, or wageless farm-work, was eradicated. Crop specialization started in some districts, such because the cultivation of rice in Plovdiv and Pazardzhik and of rose oil in Karlovo, Kazanluk, and so on.

Bulgaria through the first half of the 19th century

The work of the artisan reached its peak in Bulgaria through the first half of the 19th century. It was stimulated by the calls for of the Ottoman empire for coarse woollen fabric, belts, knitted socks, yarn, leather-based merchandise and . The cx’afts in Bulgaria, patterned on the medieval European guilds, w’ere united in corporative organizations, by which a strict order was noticed in ti’aining apprentices, journeymen and grandmasters. The aim of the corporative  organizations was the identical as that of the European guild system: Manufacturing and remove competitors. An growth of financial exercise got here with the “scattered manufactory” system whereby wealthy and enterprising retailers distributed uncooked supplies in return, the completed merchandise (yarn, aba fabric, socks, and so on.), which had been then offered on the Turkish market. The primary machine-run weaving manufacturing facility was constructed on this interval at oliven, in 1838.

The primary railroad in Bulgaria was constructed between Russe and Varna through the second half of the 19th century. Commerce specialization had een underway within the rising city facilities because the mid-18th century Thus, Gabrovo and Sliven specialised in rifles, pistols and iron instruments; the Rhodope space, in aba fabric.

 

THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the founding of the Bulgarian State, I’ve nice pleasure in greeting you and the folks of Bulgaria and to want all happiness and prosperity to the Bulgarian folks. I warmly recall my very own go to to Bulgaria final yr and the talks head with you in addition to different leaders of Bulgaria.

As soon as once more, I categorical my good needs on your excellency’s well being and happiness and for the additional growth of Indo Bulgarian friendship and wellbeing of the folks of Bulgaria.

Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, President of India.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state I convey, on behalf of the federal government and of the Cypriot folks, in addition to by myself behalf, our heartfelt greetings and heat congratulations.

This anniversary, the summit of an extended historic raise, testifies to your folks’s patriotism and their attachment of their nationwide independence and freedom.

I would love as soon as once more to precise our appreciation and gratitude for the continual assist rendered to Cyprus. We interprete this assist not solely as an expression of friendship in direction of the Cypriot folks but in addition as a proof of your attachment to the beliefs of justice, freedom and peace.

I want Your Excellency well being and happiness; and the Bulgarian folks  progress and prosperity.

Pending our forthcoming assembly in Sofia I categorical my sentiments of deepest respect for you.

The bearer of this letter, Mr. Georgios Ioannides, Chairman of the Steering Committee for celebrating the 1300th anniversary of the Bulgarian state, will convey to you personally our emotions and can inform you of the event of the Cypriot drawback.

Spiros Kiprianou, President of the Republic of Cyprus.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state on behalf of the Social gathering, the federal government and the folks of Zambia, and by myself behalf, I wish to convey our honest and heartfelt congratulations to you, Comrade President, and thru you, to the folks of the Folks’s Republic of Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian historical past is wealthy in heroic struggles and successes.

We consider the Ninth of September, 1944 as a memorable day when the Socialist Revolution of the folks of your nation triumphed.

 

The Liquidation of Political Opponents

In January 1946, the Soviet Deputy Overseas Minister Andrei Vishinsky arrived in Sofia and insisted on the implementation of the Moscow resolution. Vishinsky met with Nicholas Petkov, the chief of the United Democratic Opposition. Vishinsky threatened Petkov and informed him that he needed to settle for Stalin’s fiat. Petkov retorted that he had by no means acquired orders from any international official however solely from his folks and his group. The Social Democratic chief, Kosta Lulchev, following Petkov’s instance, additionally refused to enter the Cupboard.

In the identical yr, the Communist-dominated Sofia regime determined to name new elections for a Constituent Meeting whose process could be to attract up and undertake a brand new structure. The elections came about on October 27, 1946. In the course of the weeks previous the balloting, a reign of terror was launched in opposition to the Bulgarian folks. Greater than twenty candidates or supporters of the Democratic Opposition had been killed; 1000’s had been molested, arrested and tortured. On the eve of the elections, the overwhelming majority of the opposition delegates, who had been on the polling stations to oversee the balloting and help in counting votes, had been seized by the Communist secret police and crushed. That is why in many of the polling stations solely Communist delegates tabulated the votes. Just a few of the returns revealed by the Communist authorities had been truly checked by the opposition.

The Constituent Meeting

The Constituent Meeting returned in these elections was made up of 364 Communists and fellow vacationers, and 101 deputies for the Demoei atic Opposition. This Meeting, elected beneath a infamous l eign of terror, under no circumstances expressed the desire of the Bulgarian folks. However, a comparatively highly effective opposition group of 92 deputies of the Peasant Get together, eight deputies of the Social Democratic Get together and 1 Impartial Mental had been returned. In the course of the winter of 1946-1947, the leaders of the Democratic Opposition, and Nicholas Petkov particularly, availed themselves of their constitutional and parliamentary immunity by denouncing overt Communist strategies of intimidation and persecution.

Sadly, when the Communist administration in Bulgaria signed the Peace Treaty on February 10, 1947, it obtained recognition because the official Bulgarian authorities from the Western Powers. Thereafter, the Communist regime had no motive any longer to allow the existence of opposition events; it swiftly proceeded to .liquidate them. Dr. C. M. Dimitrov, Secretary Normal of the Peasant Get together, was arrested in January 1945. He was in a position to depart the nation solely by the intervention of the American political consultant. From 1945 to 1947, 1000’s of members and followers of the Peasant Get together had been arrested and tortured. On June 5, 1947, Nicholas Petkov, an outspoken chief of the Democratic Opposition, was arrested within the Parliament. On the identical time, all opposition deputies had been savagely attacked by 300 brokers of the Communist safety police. After a mock trial on trumped-up prices of conspiracy, Nicholas Petkov was sentenced to loss of life on August 16. He was hanged on September 23, 1947.

 

Conventional sample of nonetheless life and panorama portray

Solely simply now some artists have damaged the standard sample of nonetheless life and panorama portray in a technique or one other. One in all them is Emil Stoichev, along with his portraits through which fiction dominates the naturalistic strategy: hardedge realism is attribute for Yordan Marinov  his work present an impact of irreality. The works of Andrei Daniel even have an environment of estrangement. Modern graphic artwork has in its material a robust penchant in the direction of the implausible, primarily within the etchings and lithographs by Stoyan Tzanev, Stoimen Stoilov and Stoyan Stoyanov.

Ivan Dimov’s work have an inclination in the direction of photorealism. In Rousse Nikolai Karadjov and Volodia Kenarev discover their very own type of realism: Karadjov makes stylized nonetheless life work, Kenarev concentrates on interiors and previous buildings in his work. The coloristic experiments by Vessa Vassileva, now working at Boyana, close to Sofia, give her a place of her personal in up to date Bulgarian artwork. My acquaintance with Bulgarian artwork was brief and undoubtedly fragmentary; nonetheless it was an actual encounter which incorporates an earnest need for contacts of a vaster and extra profound character.

John Sillevis,

Chief specialist within the municipal museum The Hague.

Article within the catalogue for the exhibition ’’Modern Bulgarian Artwork” in ’’Pulchri” studio injunejuly 1981.

BULGARIA 1300

From the article Bulgaria celebrates this 12 months its 1300 years existence as a state. In 1300” by R. Soetenhorst in 681 A.D. the Bulgarian Khan Asparuch succeeded by means of a battle of NRC Handelsblad, 31 October a few years in forcing the Byzantine emperor to make a treaty re 1981 cognizing the Asparuch’s kingdom on the Balkans.

Nearly the entire worldwide group was final week represented in Sofia on the festivities every so often of the 1300 years Bulgaria.

Todor Zhivkov, since 1954 the undisputed chief of Bulgaria, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Celebration and President of the State Council of the Folks’s Republic couldn’t have wished a greater second for the festivities round Bulgaria 1300.

The Bulgarian chief makes efforts for atomfree Balkans. The neighbourly nations are invited subsequent 12 months to a topconference about this concept, which might be held for instance and by choice in Sofia. The Bulgarian authorities, which declares that it’s going to not permit any atomic weapons on its floor, has already exchanged views with completely different Scandinavian governments about atomfree zones in Europe.

An existence not lower than 1300 years

In 1981 a celebrating state, which is pleased with an existence not lower than 1300 years, Bulgaria:  a rustic which had in a really brief time to make up damages completed for hundreds of years, a tough on itself working communist state, which increasingly typically manages to draw the eye of the Western ’’spectator”.

For the celebration of this anniversary within the Netherlands Bulgaria might be within the information with a collection of exhibitions and visits of dancing teams and the unsurpassed opera of Sofia.

Bulgaria, a distant Balkancountry, which is clearly prepared to come back nearer.