THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the founding of the Bulgarian State, I’ve nice pleasure in greeting you and the folks of Bulgaria and to want all happiness and prosperity to the Bulgarian folks. I warmly recall my very own go to to Bulgaria final yr and the talks head with you in addition to different leaders of Bulgaria.

As soon as once more, I categorical my good needs on your excellency’s well being and happiness and for the additional growth of Indo Bulgarian friendship and wellbeing of the folks of Bulgaria.

Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, President of India.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state I convey, on behalf of the federal government and of the Cypriot folks, in addition to by myself behalf, our heartfelt greetings and heat congratulations.

This anniversary, the summit of an extended historic raise, testifies to your folks’s patriotism and their attachment of their nationwide independence and freedom.

I would love as soon as once more to precise our appreciation and gratitude for the continual assist rendered to Cyprus. We interprete this assist not solely as an expression of friendship in direction of the Cypriot folks but in addition as a proof of your attachment to the beliefs of justice, freedom and peace.

I want Your Excellency well being and happiness; and the Bulgarian folks  progress and prosperity.

Pending our forthcoming assembly in Sofia I categorical my sentiments of deepest respect for you.

The bearer of this letter, Mr. Georgios Ioannides, Chairman of the Steering Committee for celebrating the 1300th anniversary of the Bulgarian state, will convey to you personally our emotions and can inform you of the event of the Cypriot drawback.

Spiros Kiprianou, President of the Republic of Cyprus.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state on behalf of the Social gathering, the federal government and the folks of Zambia, and by myself behalf, I wish to convey our honest and heartfelt congratulations to you, Comrade President, and thru you, to the folks of the Folks’s Republic of Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian historical past is wealthy in heroic struggles and successes.

We consider the Ninth of September, 1944 as a memorable day when the Socialist Revolution of the folks of your nation triumphed.

 

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The Liquidation of Political Opponents

In January 1946, the Soviet Deputy Overseas Minister Andrei Vishinsky arrived in Sofia and insisted on the implementation of the Moscow resolution. Vishinsky met with Nicholas Petkov, the chief of the United Democratic Opposition. Vishinsky threatened Petkov and informed him that he needed to settle for Stalin’s fiat. Petkov retorted that he had by no means acquired orders from any international official however solely from his folks and his group. The Social Democratic chief, Kosta Lulchev, following Petkov’s instance, additionally refused to enter the Cupboard.

In the identical yr, the Communist-dominated Sofia regime determined to name new elections for a Constituent Meeting whose process could be to attract up and undertake a brand new structure. The elections came about on October 27, 1946. In the course of the weeks previous the balloting, a reign of terror was launched in opposition to the Bulgarian folks. Greater than twenty candidates or supporters of the Democratic Opposition had been killed; 1000’s had been molested, arrested and tortured. On the eve of the elections, the overwhelming majority of the opposition delegates, who had been on the polling stations to oversee the balloting and help in counting votes, had been seized by the Communist secret police and crushed. That is why in many of the polling stations solely Communist delegates tabulated the votes. Just a few of the returns revealed by the Communist authorities had been truly checked by the opposition.

The Constituent Meeting

The Constituent Meeting returned in these elections was made up of 364 Communists and fellow vacationers, and 101 deputies for the Demoei atic Opposition. This Meeting, elected beneath a infamous l eign of terror, under no circumstances expressed the desire of the Bulgarian folks. However, a comparatively highly effective opposition group of 92 deputies of the Peasant Get together, eight deputies of the Social Democratic Get together and 1 Impartial Mental had been returned. In the course of the winter of 1946-1947, the leaders of the Democratic Opposition, and Nicholas Petkov particularly, availed themselves of their constitutional and parliamentary immunity by denouncing overt Communist strategies of intimidation and persecution.

Sadly, when the Communist administration in Bulgaria signed the Peace Treaty on February 10, 1947, it obtained recognition because the official Bulgarian authorities from the Western Powers. Thereafter, the Communist regime had no motive any longer to allow the existence of opposition events; it swiftly proceeded to .liquidate them. Dr. C. M. Dimitrov, Secretary Normal of the Peasant Get together, was arrested in January 1945. He was in a position to depart the nation solely by the intervention of the American political consultant. From 1945 to 1947, 1000’s of members and followers of the Peasant Get together had been arrested and tortured. On June 5, 1947, Nicholas Petkov, an outspoken chief of the Democratic Opposition, was arrested within the Parliament. On the identical time, all opposition deputies had been savagely attacked by 300 brokers of the Communist safety police. After a mock trial on trumped-up prices of conspiracy, Nicholas Petkov was sentenced to loss of life on August 16. He was hanged on September 23, 1947.

 

Conventional sample of nonetheless life and panorama portray

Solely simply now some artists have damaged the standard sample of nonetheless life and panorama portray in a technique or one other. One in all them is Emil Stoichev, along with his portraits through which fiction dominates the naturalistic strategy: hardedge realism is attribute for Yordan Marinov  his work present an impact of irreality. The works of Andrei Daniel even have an environment of estrangement. Modern graphic artwork has in its material a robust penchant in the direction of the implausible, primarily within the etchings and lithographs by Stoyan Tzanev, Stoimen Stoilov and Stoyan Stoyanov.

Ivan Dimov’s work have an inclination in the direction of photorealism. In Rousse Nikolai Karadjov and Volodia Kenarev discover their very own type of realism: Karadjov makes stylized nonetheless life work, Kenarev concentrates on interiors and previous buildings in his work. The coloristic experiments by Vessa Vassileva, now working at Boyana, close to Sofia, give her a place of her personal in up to date Bulgarian artwork. My acquaintance with Bulgarian artwork was brief and undoubtedly fragmentary; nonetheless it was an actual encounter which incorporates an earnest need for contacts of a vaster and extra profound character.

John Sillevis,

Chief specialist within the municipal museum The Hague.

Article within the catalogue for the exhibition ’’Modern Bulgarian Artwork” in ’’Pulchri” studio injunejuly 1981.

BULGARIA 1300

From the article Bulgaria celebrates this 12 months its 1300 years existence as a state. In 1300” by R. Soetenhorst in 681 A.D. the Bulgarian Khan Asparuch succeeded by means of a battle of NRC Handelsblad, 31 October a few years in forcing the Byzantine emperor to make a treaty re 1981 cognizing the Asparuch’s kingdom on the Balkans.

Nearly the entire worldwide group was final week represented in Sofia on the festivities every so often of the 1300 years Bulgaria.

Todor Zhivkov, since 1954 the undisputed chief of Bulgaria, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Celebration and President of the State Council of the Folks’s Republic couldn’t have wished a greater second for the festivities round Bulgaria 1300.

The Bulgarian chief makes efforts for atomfree Balkans. The neighbourly nations are invited subsequent 12 months to a topconference about this concept, which might be held for instance and by choice in Sofia. The Bulgarian authorities, which declares that it’s going to not permit any atomic weapons on its floor, has already exchanged views with completely different Scandinavian governments about atomfree zones in Europe.

An existence not lower than 1300 years

In 1981 a celebrating state, which is pleased with an existence not lower than 1300 years, Bulgaria:  a rustic which had in a really brief time to make up damages completed for hundreds of years, a tough on itself working communist state, which increasingly typically manages to draw the eye of the Western ’’spectator”.

For the celebration of this anniversary within the Netherlands Bulgaria might be within the information with a collection of exhibitions and visits of dancing teams and the unsurpassed opera of Sofia.

Bulgaria, a distant Balkancountry, which is clearly prepared to come back nearer.

Point out the ThracoIllyrians

Of those we might point out the ThracoIllyrians, the ThracoMacedonians, and the ThracoDadans. At first of the third century, the Slavs made their first look and, crossing the Danube, got here to settle within the nice plains between the river and the Balkans. Later, they proceeded southwards and shaped colonies among the many Thraco Illyrians, the Roumanians, and the Greeks. This Slav emigration went on for a number of centuries. Within the seventh century of the Christian period a Finnougric tribe reached the banks of the Danube.

It’s recognized that this tribe got here from the Volga and, crossing Russia, proceeded in direction of historical Moesia, the place it took possession of the entire northeast territory of the Balkans between the Danube and the Black Sea. These have been the Bulgars, or Bolgars. The Slavs, having a far stronger character than the races they’d discovered within the peninsula, had already imposed on them their language and customs. To a sure extent, the Bulgars met with the identical destiny: they assumed the language of the Slavs, and a few of their customs.

The Bulgars, nonetheless, gave their title to the combined race, and, because of their vitality and energy of organising, assumed the political supremacy. The Bulgarian kingdom, thus based, was quickly enlarged. The chief traits of the Bulgars have been warlike virtues, self-discipline, patriotism, and enthusiasm. The Bulgarian kings introduced their victorious armies to the gates of Constantinople, whose very existence they threatened. The Greek Emperor sought their friendship, and even consented to pay them tribute. Bulgaria attained her best empire within the reign of King Kroum.

The best occasion on this interval of Bulgarian historical past is the introduction of Christianity. This befell within the reign of King Boris, in direction of the top of the ninth century. Boris was the primary Christian king of Bulgaria, and from his reign dates the historical past of Bulgaria as a civilised and settled nation growing its powers to a substantial level.

One other occasion maybe much more essential was the looks about this time of the good apostles Cyril and Methodius, the originators of the cyrilic alphabet, which has been adopted by all of the Slav peoples, together with Russia. The foundations of nationwide tradition liaving thus been laid, a literary motion started in Bulgaria.

Beneath the reign of Tsar Simeon

Beneath the reign of Tsar Simeon, the son of Boris, the Bulgarian empire elevated nonetheless additional. It embraced not solely Bulgaria correct, however Wallachia, a part of Hungary and Transylvania, a part of Albania and Epirus, of Macedonia and Thessaly. Simeon, now not content material with the title of king, referred to as himself Tsar, “ emperor and autocrat of all Bulgarians and Greeks.” This title was retained by Bulgarian sovereigns till the conquest of the dominion by the Osmanlis.

 

Departmental college council meets

The departmental college council meets in common classes each month. It could meet at different instances if there may be any want for this.

The duties of the departmental instructional council are crucial. They’re laid down by the Legislation on public instruction as follows:

  1. Uniformal software of the academic legal guidelines and rules all through the division.
  2. Examination of disputes which can come up between the academic committees, the parish councils, and the lecturers.
  3. Revision of disciplinary punishments inflicted on lecturers.
  4. Punishment of oldsters and lecturers who’ve been discovered responsible of breaking the rules in regards to the compulsory attendance of major colleges.
  5. Opening of recent colleges and examination of all questions affecting the academic division normally.

The choices of the departmental instructional councils are submitted to the approval of the Minister of Public Instruction, who has the ability of annulling or modifying them.

Instructional Committees.—These are the earliest Bulgarian autonomous establishments. They first appeared in the course of the Turkish domination, and attained a excessive diploma of improvement, within the face of the persecutions to which the Bulgarian nation was uncovered. As consultant organs of the Bulgarian nationality, they contributed greater than apy different establishment to the mental and ethical awakening of the nation,and the muse of an impartial Bulgarian Church, in addition to the organisation of the primary Bulgarian college, are in a big measure because of their efforts. The quite a few colleges, the skilled lecturers, and the enlightened courses which existed in Bulgaria on the time of our political emancipation are so many proofs of the beneficent exercise of those nationwide instructional committees. Owing to the essential half which they performed in our nationwide revival, these committees have develop into with the Bulgarians a standard establishment which has been maintained by the varied training legal guidelines and which continues to at the present time to type a part of the academic system of the nation.

Instructional committee in each city

Article 21 of the legislation of 1891 gives for an academic committee in each city and village. The duties of those committees, which act as a particular committee of the communal councils, consist in taking care of the academic work of their respective circumscriptions. They’re composed of 5 members within the cities and of three members within the villages. The mayor of the city or village is, by proper president of the committee. The remaining members are elected by common suffrage and by secret poll similtaneously the members of the municipal councils.

The powers and the duties of the academic committees are as follows:

  1. To nominate lecturers within the major colleges.
  2. To offer the means for the upkeep of the faculties.
  3. To help poor pupils.
  4. To organize the varsity funds.
  5. To oversee the varsity buildings and furnishings.
  6. To seek out means for the development of recent buildings, to provide instructional home equipment, and to see that every one kids liable to compulsory instruction attend often the courses.
  7. To manage the property and the funds of the faculties.

 

An important a part of this regulation

An important a part of this regulation, nonetheless, is that in advantage of which the State has reserved for itself the unique proper of importing, making, and wholeselling of salt, matches, and cigarette paper, hoping thus to extend its income from these sources.

In addition to, this regulation stipulates that sooner or later the obligation on^ tobacco and the Mourourte should be paid in gold and never in silver—a circumstance which can enhance the amount ofTgold held by the State, and thus cut back the bills previously incurred by the State Treasury owing to the agio.

  1. A regulation on obligatory labour, regulation of the State and communal roads (ratified by royal decree No. 1 on January rath, 1904, and promulgated within the Official Journal of January 20th, 1904), amends the previous regulation within the sense that henceforth this obligation should be paid in money. This new regulation additionally incorporates a sure variety of provisions facilitating the imposition of these individuals who’ve previously succeeded in escaping from this obligation.
  2. A regulation on navy tax. In keeping with the previous regulation on the organisation of the armed forces of the Principality of Bulgaria, the tax imposed on those that have been exempt from serving within the military different from ten to 5 hundred francs whereas the current regulation subdivides the tax into fifteen cate’ gories, various from ten to a thousand francs.

The State privileges on the articles already enumerated, in addition to on playingcards, have already elevated the income from these chapters, and have thus enabled the State to fulfill the deficiencies produced by a few of the remaining chapters of the Funds. This new income figured for the primary time within the Funds for 1906.

When these privileges have been positively established

When these privileges have been positively established, it’s anticipated that they may enhance from 4 to 5 thousands and thousands of francs the income derived from the excise and the customs.

In an effort to kind a transparent and precise notion of the monetary situation of the nation, it is sufficient to study the stability sheets of the Principality, comprising its liabilities and its property, the State properties included. This balancesheet reveals that at this time hour the nation enjoys a firmly established monetary state of affairs.

The next desk incorporates the property and the liabilities of the Principality on January 1st, 1907.

 

The Danube flows from the Black Forest mountains

The Danube flows from the Black Forest mountains throughout Germany and AustroHungary, kinds the boundary between Servia and Roumania and between Bulgaria and Roumania, and falls into the Black Sea, forming a delta. It’s a mighty river, discharging 5,000 cubic metres of water per second; the width of its mattress varies from 700 to 1,200 metres. Its depth close to Widin is eight metres, close to Rahovo 7 metres 70 cm., close to Nicopolis 12 metres 9 cm., close to Rustchuk four metres. The best variation of the waterlevel is 5 metres 5 cm. A lot of islands lie alongside its complete course, spherical which the river branches. The Danube was frozen over 13 instances between 183696. It freezes, on a median, thirtynine days within the yr. It remained longest frozen curing the memorable winter of 18789.

The principal tributaries of the Danube are the Lorn, the Ogosta, the Isker, the Vid, the Ossem, and the Iantra. All these streams rise within the StaraPlanina, besides the Isker, which rises within the Rilo, and flows proper via the Stara Planina in a powerful gorge. The streams rise in any respect heights, and all over the place provide the folks of the nation with waterpower, used up until now for turning primitive mills ranged in an limitless succession alongside the entire course of the streams. On reaching the plain the streams circulation extra slowly, whereas, then again, their beds turn into deeper and deeper as you method the mouth. They’re then not fordable, and no extra mills are to be seen. Floods are very frequent, however by no means harmful. Typically talking, the tributaries of the Danube derive their waters from the mountains alone, and lose a few of all of it alongside their course. Collectively they don’t contribute greater than 250 cubic metres of water per second.

The Maritza is the river of Southern Bulgaria

The Maritza is the river of Southern Bulgaria. A number of streams whose sources are within the Rhodopes, the StaraPlanina and the SrednaGora, circulation into it. The tributaries on the correct financial institution, coming from the luxuriant forests of the Rhodopes, are of just about the identical depth all of the yr spherical, whereas these on the left financial institution, coming from the naked rocks of the Stara Planina, are topic to variations: swift and deep within the wet season and in spring, they’re nearly dried up in summer season. The Toundja and the Arda are the chief affluents of the Maritza, which they be a part of close to Adrianople. The previous rises within the StaraPlanina and the latter within the Rhodopes. Past Tatar Pazardjik the Maritza flows extra slowly. Benefit is taken of this for the conveyance of timber, the trunks being merely fixed collectively and guided like primitive rafts.